Hướng dẫn làm bài"Left-handed or Right-handed"IELTS READING

· Reading

Bên cạnh Hướng dẫn làm bài"Left-handed or Right-handed"IELTS READING, IELTS TUTOR cũng cung cấp thêm PHÂN TÍCH ĐỀ THI 30/5/2020 IELTS WRITING TASK 2 (kèm bài sửa HS đạt 6.5)

I. Bài đọc

Left-handed or Right-handed

Section A

The probability that two right-handed people would have a left-handed child is only about 9.5 percent. The chance rises to 19.5 percent if one parent is a lefty and 26 percent if both parents are left-handed: The preference, however, could also stem from an infant’s imitation of his parents. To test genetic influence, starting in the 1970s British biologist Marian Annett of the University of Leicester hypothesized that no single gene determines handedness. Rather, during fetal development, a certain molecular factor helps to strengthen the brain’s left hemisphere, which increases the probability that the right hand will be dominant because the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. Among the minority of people who lack this factor, handedness develops entirely by chance.

Research conducted on twins complicates the theory, however. One in five sets of identical twins involves one right-handed and one left-handed person, despite the fact that their genetic material is the same. Genes, therefore, are not solely responsible for handedness.

Section B

The genetic theory is also undermined by results from Peter Hepper and his team at Queen’s University in Belfast, Ireland. In 2004 the psychologists used ultrasound to show that by the 15th week of pregnancy, fetuses already have a preference as to which thumb they suck. In most cases, the preference continued after birth. At 15 weeks, though, the brain does not yet have control over the body’s limbs. Hepper speculates that fetuses tend to prefer whichever side of the body is developing quickly and that their movements, in turn, influence the brain’s development. Whether this early preference is temporary or holds up throughout development and infancy is unknown. Genetic predetermination is also contradicted by the widespread observation that children do not settle on either their right or left hand until they are two or three years old.

Section C

But even if these correlations were true, they did not explain what actually causes left-handedness. Furthermore, specialization on either side of the body is common among animals. Cats will favor one paw over another when fishing toys out from under the couch. Horses stomp more frequently with one hoof than the other. Certain crabs motion predominantly with the left or right claw. In evolutionary terms, focusing power and dexterity in one limb is more efficient than having to train two, four or even eight limbs equally. Yet for most animals, the preference for one side or the other is seemingly random. The overwhelming dominance of the right hand is associated only with humans. That fact directs attention toward the brain’s two hemispheres and perhaps toward language.

Section D

Interest in hemispheres dates back to at least 1836. That year, at a medical conference, French physician Marc Dax reported on an unusual commonality among his patients. During his many years as a country doctor, Dax had encountered more than 40 men and women for whom speech was difficult, the result of some kind of brain damage. What was unique was that every individual suffered damage to the left side of the brain. At the conference, Dax elaborated on his theory, stating that each half of the brain was responsible for certain functions and that the left hemisphere controlled speech. Other experts showed little interest in the Frenchman’s ideas.

Over time, however, scientists found more and more evidence of people experiencing speech difficulties following an injury to the left brain. Patients with damage to the right hemisphere most often displayed disruptions in perception or concentration. Major advancements in understanding the brain’s asymmetry were made in the 1960s as a result of so-called split-brain surgery, developed to help patients with epilepsy. During this operation, doctors severed the corpus callosum – the nerve bundle that connects the two hemispheres. The surgical cut also stopped almost all normal communication between the two hemispheres, which offered researchers the opportunity to investigate each side’s activity.

Section E

In 1949 neurosurgeon Juhn Wada devised the first test to provide access to the brain’s functional organization of language. By injecting an anesthetic into the right or left carotid artery, Wada temporarily paralyzed one side of a healthy brain, enabling him to more closely study the other side’s capabilities. Based on this approach, Brenda Milner and the late Theodore Rasmussen of the Montreal Neurological Institute published a major study in 1975 that confirmed the theory that country doctor Dax had formulated nearly 140 years earlier: in 96 percent of right-handed people, language is processed much more intensely in the left hemisphere. The correlation is not as clear in lefties, however. For two-thirds of them, the left hemisphere is still the most active language processor. But for the remaining third, either the right side is dominant or both sides work equally, controlling different language functions.

That last statistic has slowed acceptance of the notion that the predominance of right-handedness is driven by left-hemisphere dominance in language processing. It is not at all clear why language control should somehow have dragged the control of body movement with it. Some experts think one reason the left hemisphere reigns over language is that the organs of speech processing – the larynx and tongue – are positioned on the body’s symmetry axis. Because these structures were centered, it may have been unclear, in evolutionary terms, which side of the brain should control them, and it seems unlikely that shared operation would result in smooth motor activity.

Language and handedness could have developed preferentially for very different reasons as well. For example, some researchers, including evolutionary psychologist Michael C. Corballis of the University of Auckland in New Zealand, think that the origin of human speech lies in gestures. Gestures predated words and helped language emerge. If the left hemisphere began to dominate speech, it would have dominated gestures, too, and because the left brain controls the right side of the body, the right hand developed more strongly.

Section F

Perhaps we will know more soon. In the meantime, we can revel in what, if any, differences handedness brings to our human talents. Popular wisdom says right-handed, left-brained people excel at logical, analytical thinking. Left-handed, right-brained individuals are thought to possess more creative skills and maybe better at combining the functional features emergent on both sides of the brain. Yet some neuroscientists see such claims as pure speculation. Fewer scientists are ready to claim that left-handedness means greater creative potential. Yet lefties are prevalent among artists, composers and the generally acknowledged great political thinkers. Possibly if these individuals are among the lefties whose language abilities are evenly distributed between hemispheres, the intense interplay required could lead to unusual mental capabilities.

Section G

Or perhaps some lefties become highly creative because they must be more clever to get by in our right-handed world. This battle, which begins during the very early stages of childhood, may lay the groundwork for exceptional achievements.

II. Hướng dẫn cách làm

1. Questions 14-18

The Reading Passage has 7 paragraphs A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?


14. The phenomenon of using one side of their body for animals.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Hiện tượng sử dụng một bên cơ thể của chúng đối với động vật.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

15. Statistics on the rate of one-handedness born.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Thống kê về tỷ lệ sinh một tay.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

16. The age when the preference for using one hand is fixed.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Độ tuổi mà sở thích sử dụng một tay được cố định.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

17. great talents of occupations in the left-handed population.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • tài năng lớn của các nghề ở những người dân thuận tay trái.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

18. The earliest record of researching hemisphere’s function.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Bản ghi sớm nhất về nghiên cứu chức năng của bán cầu.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

  • record (n) lưu trữ 

2. Questions 19-22: Match each researcher with the correct finding.

A. Brenda Milner

B. Marian Annett

C. Peter Hepper

D. Michale Corballis


19. Ancient language evolution is connected to body gesture and therefore influences handedness.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Sự tiến hóa của ngôn ngữ cổ đại được kết nối với cử chỉ cơ thể và do đó ảnh hưởng đến sự thuận tay.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

20. A child handedness is not determined by just biological factors.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Sự thuận tay của một đứa trẻ không chỉ được xác định bởi các yếu tố sinh học.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

  • determine (v) xác định 
  • biological (a) thuộc yếu tố sinh học 

21. Language process is generally undergoing in the left hemisphere of the brain.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Quá trình ngôn ngữ thường diễn ra ở bán cầu não trái.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

  • process (n) tiến trình 
  • undergo (v) trải qua 

22. The rate of development of one side of the body has an influence on hemisphere preference in the fetus.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Tốc độ phát triển của một bên cơ thể có ảnh hưởng đến sự ưa thích bán cầu ở thai nhi.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

3. Questions 23-26 : YES – NO – NOT GIVEN


23. The study of twins shows that genetic determination is not the only factor for left Handedness.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Nghiên cứu về các cặp song sinh cho thấy xác định di truyền không phải là yếu tố duy nhất dẫn đến tật Thuận tay trái.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

  • genetic (a) thuộc về gen 
  • determination (n) sự xác định 

24. The number of men with left-handedness is more than that of women.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Số đàn ông thuận tay trái nhiều hơn phụ nữ.

25. Marc Dax’s report was widely recognized in his time.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Báo cáo của Marc Dax đã được công nhận rộng rãi trong thời đại của ông.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

  • widely (adv) rộng rãi
  • recognize (v) công nhận 

26. Juhn Wada based his findings on his research of people with language problems.

IELTS TUTOR dịch câu hỏi:

  • Juhn Wada dựa trên kết quả nghiên cứu của mình về những người có vấn đề về ngôn ngữ.

IELTS TUTOR lưu ý từ mới trong câu hỏi:

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Các khóa học IELTS online 1 kèm 1 - 100% cam kết đạt target 6.0 - 7.0 - 8.0
Các khóa học IELTS online 1 kèm 1 - 100% cam kết đạt target 6.0 - 7.0 - 8.0